In 2016 two fundamental research projects were completed:
- “Regularities of phase formation of metals in electrocrystallization in aqueous solutions under conditions of external power influence” (state registration number 0114U002489).
Head of research: Hirin Oleh Borysovych, Dr. T. Sciences, prof., Head. of material science department.
Objective: to experimentally verify the authenticity of the phenomenon of phase formation of metals detected by the authors of the SRW during electrocrystallization through the stage of the liquid state, for which to establish the regularities of phase formation of metals during electrocrystallization under conditions of external force influence in parallel, perpendicular and at an angle to the crystallization front.
In the course of the research, studies were carried out using previously designed centrifugal and electrochemical cells, which ensured the process of electrocrystallization of metals under conditions of insignificant force influence, which corresponded to a voltage of less than one percent of the metal yield strength. Such conditions for the production of electrodeposited metals provided an opportunity to reveal the structural features characteristic for solidification of the liquid metal phase. The result is for the first time proved:
- the effect of a wave-like flow of surface layers of electrodeposited metals under the action of external forces directed parallel to the crystallization front, with the bending of the waves by mechanical obstacles and the appearance of foam on the crest of waves;
- the effect of formation of anisotropic configuration of precipitates of electrodeposited metals with smoothing of morphology and reduction of roughness of their surface under the influence of external force directed parallel to the crystallization front;
- the effect of crushing the intracrystalline structureand morphology of the surface of metals electrodeposited in conditions of insignificant external force influence perpendicular to the crystallization front;
- the effect of increasing the density of dislocations in electrodeposited metals under the influence of external force of insignificant value, directed perpendicular to the crystallization front;
- the effect of plastic deformation of surface layers of electrodeposited metals by hardened particles moving under the influence of a small external force directed at an angle to the crystallization front;
- the effect of occurrence in layers of electrodeposited metals, adjacent to the cathode, spherulites and pentagonal quasicrystals characteristic of metals, obtained in the case of ultrafast hardening of a strongly supercooled liquid metal phase.
The obtained results prove the existence of a phase formation of electrodeposited metals through a stage of supercooled liquid state. The results of the work make radical changes to existing concepts regarding the formation of phases and the structure of metals during their electrocrystallization and determine new directions for obtaining electrical coatings with improved chemical and mechanical properties. The development of directions for the practical use of this phenomenon in energy (in the production of chemical current sources), metallurgy (in the production of tinned tin) and rocket and space technology (when applied to special products of coatings with improved strength and corrosion resistance) will contribute to strengthening the national security and defense capabilities of the country.
- “Co-compounds Re (I, III) and Zr (IV) as the basis for the synthesis of new biologically active substances and functional materials” (state registration number 0114U002488).
Head of Research: Oleksandr Shtemenko, Dr. Ch. Sciences, prof., Head. of inorganic chemistry department
Objective: synthesis of new complex compounds and oxide systems based on Re (I, III) and Zr (IV) as bioactive and nanosized functional materials, study of their properties, mechanism of biological action and forms of existence in solutions and living organisms.
As a result of the research, new knowledge on the chemistry of complex compounds and oxide systems based on Re (I, III) and Zr (IV) was obtained, which allows us to understand the mechanism of biological action (in particular anticancer) of the compounds obtained and to predict substances with the most effective bioactivity.
The hypothesis that anti-cancer, antioxidant, cytostabilizing, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and other types of biological activity, the presence of which has already been proven for binuclear cluster compounds Re (III), is the result of the possibility of a low-energy electron transition in a Reverend Re-Re or capture component of the electron connection. In addition, it has been proved that targeted action on the cell is provided by covalent interaction with biological macromolecules (proteins, DNA, etc.), their constituent parts (amino acids, nucleic bases, nucleotides, nucleosides) and plasmids.
The mechanism of anti-radical action of complex compounds of rhenium (III) consists in the transition of one electron from an artificial modeling radical to a ground-bonded rhenium-rhenium complex of compounds of deirenium (III) was established The mechanism was studied on the example of the system: a stable triphenyl-averagedilizing radical and a high-reactive compound of deirenium (III) in solution. This mechanism has the advantage that complex compounds of rhenium (III), unlike known analogs, can catalyze the decomposition of free radicals, acting as anti-radical agents of multiple action.
Based on detailed studies of luminescent properties, it has been proved that rhenium (I) carbonyls coordination compounds can serve as biological markers and labels for fluorescence cell imaging, including for the diagnosis of oncological diseases and for tracking the distribution of pharmaceuticals in a living organism. The concept of purposeful introduction of fluorescent labels on the basis of tricarbonyl complexes of rhenium (I) to biomolecules consists in the synthesis of luminophore having a free carboxyl group and attaching a peptide to it that will carry out a transport role. The attachment was carried out by peptide synthesis by forming an amide bond between the carboxyl group of the ligand and the amino group of the peptide.
Some of the resulting coordination compounds Zr (IV) can be used to obtain medical supplies (artificial bones, dentures, medical instruments). Also, the technological efficiency of methanesulfonate precursors for the production of thin film solid electrolytes for Fuel Sell type fuel cells has been established.
In 2016, two applied SRW were completed.
- “Development of backup lithium batteries capable of operating at a temperature of minus 25С with a shelf life of 15 years” (state registration number 0115U003164).
Head of the Research: Olga M. Shembel, Dr. of Chemistry, prof., Head of chemical current sources SRL
Objective is to study materials and develop a high-energy reserve source of current, which combines the advantages of the primary CCS and battery. Unlike the battery, the primary lithium current source has several times higher power characteristics and low self-discharge, which makes it possible to immediately obtain the required energy after a long-term storage. At the same time, the key to the development of CCS is the ability to cycle after activation, resulting in the effectiveness of the CCS significantly increases.
In the course of implementation of the research were developed: recommendations for the composition of the composite mass of the positive electrode; laboratory technology for cathode manufacturing; recommendations on the composition of non-aqueous electrolyte; a methodology for the production of experimental samples of backup lithium current sources; a method of rapid testing of current sources that simulates their long-term storage. Experimental samples of backup lithium current sources of cylindrical configuration (diameter 6.3 mm, height 55 mm) were made.
An effective way to increase the specific energy of miniature backup sources is proposed, due to the implementation of a two-layered structure of the case. It is known that reducing the volume of the current source leads to an increase in the specific weight and volume of the body in the design. This reduces the specific energy characteristics of the current sources. Implementation of the developed innovative structure of the power source enclosure in other designs and dimensions of the developed current sources will increase their energy characteristics compared with existing sources of current and will create additional economic effect. Also innovative is the way to increase the specific energy of the developed backup elements by 30% by the activation method due to charge after the first discharge, which is impossible for commercial analogues of the elements. After activation, the discharge capacity is kept unchanged for a long time of storage. Activation makes it possible to regenerate the backup power supply 3-4 times after use in the equipment, which increases the service life of power sources and their competitiveness. The weight of the developed reserve power source after activation by the charge is 340 W / h / kg, which is approximately 30% higher than for a similar current source of Li-FeS2 Series Ultinate lithium from Energizer in AA dimensions (250 W / h / kg). and exceeds 41% of the specific energy of the CDU in AAA dimensions (200 W / h / kg).
The developed samples of lithium current sources were presented at the International Specialized Exhibition “Weapons and Security” (Kyiv).
The privately owned joint stock company “Research-and-production complex”Kurs”and the State Enterprise” Ukroboronservis “offered to consider the possibility of developing and manufacturing backup chemical elements of long-term storage for these parameters with a shelf life of 15 years. These enterprises are also interested in a technical proposal specifying production capacities on the territory of Ukraine for the manufacture of developed current sources.
In 2016, the contract on the development of technology for the production of high-energy lithium current sources with polymeric electrolyte began to be executed on a state order.
- “Physico-chemical bases of processing of titanium and molybdenum-containing raw materials in the technologies of oxide pigments and catalysts” (state registration number 0115U003163).
Head of the Research: Mykola V Nikolenko, Dr. of Chemistry, prof., head of analytical chemistry and food technology department
Objective: to establish the physicochemical regularities of the processing of titanium and molybdenum-containing raw materials and to determine the conditions for their intensification in order to improve the technology of oxide pigments and catalysts.
As a result of the research work SRW received applied scientific results:
- It is experimentally proved that in the process of milling the phase composition of ilmenite concentrate qualitatively and quantitatively changes. The change in phase composition is due to the oxidation of ilmenite and the decomposition of the metastable phase of Fe2Ti3O9 with the formation of Fe2TiO5 and TiO2 phases;
- It has been experimentally proved that the process of sulfation of the modified ilmenite should be considered as a two-stage one. The main factors of optimization of the sulfation process of ilmenite are determined: the size of the ore particles and the temperature of the reaction medium with the use of 85% solution of sulfate acid;
- It was established that between the observed constants of the rate of chemical dissolution of the modified ilmenite and the concentrations of solutions of sulfate acid, linear dependence is observed only up to a concentration of 85%. Further increasing the concentration of acid leads to a rapid decrease in the degree of leakage of titanium. It is shown that this “abnormal” pattern is well explained by the fact that nonhydrated sulfate molecules do not participate in the leaching process;
- The thermodynamic analysis of the Fe2O3/Fe2(MoО4)3/MoО3/Na2CO3 system in the temperature range 473-1273 K showed that only Fe2(MoО4)3, MoО3 and Na2CO3 are present in the condensed state. Unlike MoО3, the content of Na2CO3 and Fe2(MoО4)3 does not change throughout the studied temperature range, which suggests that it is impossible to decompose the molybdate ferrum by sintering with soda ash;
- for the first time an equation was obtained for the rate of a heterogeneous process in the intradiffusion mode, in which the concentration of the reagent is related to the functional dependence with the degree of conversion of the target product. According to established regularities, as the main factors of the optimizing effect of molybdenum leaching process, one should consider the size of the catalyst particles and the concentration of leaching solutions;
- The thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of the processes of acid and alkaline removal of molybdenum from the spent iron-molybdenum methanol conversion catalyst was performed. It was established that the rate of process of decomposition of molybdate ferrum by solutions of reagents with equal concentrations varies in a series: NaOH> Na2CO3> H2SO4> NH4OH;
- It has been proved for the first time that the acidic method for the processing of iron-molybdenum catalyst is not appropriate, since the separation of the salts of ferrum and molybdenum is not achieved. A comparative analysis of leaching efficiencies by various reagents has shown that the best molybdenum leaching is a concentrated ammonia solution. It is established that the ammonia method of complex processing of spent catalyst provides removal of molybdenum at the level of 90-95%.
Among the potential customers is LLC “TITANPROEKT” (Act-tests for the processing of spent oxide iron-molybdenum catalyst from 17.02.2016).
In 2015, two applied research projects were completed:
- “Scientific bases of technology of new glass and glass coverings of anticorrosive and electrical engineering purposes” (state registration number 0114U002486).
Head of the Research: Victor Holeus, Dr. Techn. Sciences, prof., Head of chemical technology of ceramics and glass department.
Objective: to create the scientific basis for the development of the chemical composition and to establish the basic technological parameters for the production of new glassy (amorphous) materials and glass coverings in Si-V-Ti-O-H, PbO-B2O3-SiO2, Na2O-MeO-Al2O3-TiO2-ZrO2-B2O3-SiO2, MgO-CaO-BaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2, which will be distinguished by special chemical, optical and electrophysical properties and are promising for use in various fields of science and modern technology.
As a result of the research work:
- the technology of production of highly dispersed silicon (IV) oxide, modified with organic compounds, titanium oxides and vanadium has been improved. Using the obtained laws, a research facility for the production of modified silicon (IV) oxide was created and proposed methods of modification of silicon (IV) oxide;
- New methods for predicting the properties of glasses obtained in PbO-B2O3-SiO2, Na2O-MeO-Al2O3-TiO2-ZrO2-B2O3-SiO2, MgO-CaO-BaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 oxide systems depending on the quantitative content in their composition components Analogues of the calculation methods obtained in this paper were not found in the domestic and foreign scientific and technical literature. On the basis of these methods a computer program for calculating the properties of borosilicate glasses, depending on their chemical composition and temperature, was created;
- determined optimal chemical compositions and basic technological parameters for the manufacture of chemical resistant coatings for hot-water steel pipes that can be used in the production of enamel products and a technological instruction for the production of enamel glass for their manufacture is proposed;
- the regularities of the change of properties of fusible glasses in the system PbO-B2O3-ZnO-SiO2 from their chemical composition are established. The obtained additives regulating the properties (TCLR and TPD) of these glasses. On the basis of these glasses, warehouses of fusible glass-composite joints have been developed, which can be successfully used in the production of compatible hermetic metal-glass units for electronics and instrumentation industries;
- determined optimal chemical compositions and basic technological parameters of manufacture by powder-burning technology of electrical insulating coatings on aluminum, which can be used in the production of enamel products, and a technological instruction for their obtaining is proposed.
The new amorphous and glassy materials obtained as a result of the implementation of the SRW have been successfully tested at ATEM PLUS LLC as a catalyst; on “AGROMAT DECOR” LLC as an insulating coating of low-temperature film heater of LED panels; at PJSC “Elamhhimprom” as groundless glass-enamel coatings for the inner surface of hot water supply pipes. Also, the results of the GDR are proposed for use at the enterprises of the chemical industry, namely LLC “QUIRIN” (Kyiv), OJSC “Novomoskovsk dishware” (Novomoskovsk, Dnipropetrovsk region), TPK “PRIMEZS” (Zaporizhia), VK ” Santechmontazh “(Dnipro), Scientific-Production Enterprise” Stelite “(Lviv) and other enterprises.
- “Preparation of nanosized inorganic compounds from aqueous solutions under the action of contact non-equilibrium low-temperature plasma” (state registration number 0114U002487).
Head of the Research: Oleksandr Andriiovych, Pivovarov Dr. Techn. Sciences, prof., head of technology of inorganic substances and ecology department, head of plasma-chemical processes research laboratory.
Objective: to develop new high-performance plasmochemical technologies aimed at obtaining nanosized inorganic compounds from aqueous solutions.
In the process of carrying out scientific research:
- Recommendations for the preparation of nanosized inorganic compounds from aqueous solutions of metal salts under the action of contactless non-equilibrium low-temperature plasma (NLP) have been developed and worked out. The technological regimes of the plasma-chemical process are established, which ensure the receipt of products with certain physical and chemical properties necessary for their further application in various fields;
- The technology of obtaining nanodispersed colloidal solutions under the action of contactless non-equilibrium low-temperature plasma has been developed. The technological parameters that provide high yields for synthesis are determined. By means of quantum-chemical calculations, substances have been selected and experimentally investigated for stabilization of colloidal solutions made on the basis of water exposed to NLP;
- The technology of obtaining nanosized inorganic compounds of iron, aluminum and other metals from aqueous solutions under the action of contactless nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma has been developed. Technologically feasible parameters of synthesis under the action of NLP are established and physical and chemical characteristics of the obtained inorganic compounds are given. Synthesis of compounds according to the developed technology allows to receive particles of a given size and shape;
- A mathematical model for the process of obtaining nanoparticles in a solution under the action of a contact non-equilibrium low-temperature plasma was developed;
- Recommendations concerning the further use and introduction of nanosized inorganic compounds obtained by the plasmochimic method have been developed. The recommendations are developed taking into account the determined physical and chemical properties of inorganic compounds.
The proposed recommendations allow colloidal solutions and inorganic compounds with improved physico-chemical properties to be used as a result of plasmachemical treatment, the use of which for the modification of existing materials, at different stages of the technological processes of the enterprises of the chemical, textile and paint and varnish industries, provides the already known materials with new properties that consequence, will increase the competitiveness of products by 20-50%.
Application of the technology of obtaining nanodispersed colloidal solutions under the action of NLP allows to increase the efficiency of obtaining precious metals and metals with a variable valence of 35-40% with a reduction in the length of the process of obtaining 2-3 times and the amount of reagent components of the process in 2 times. This will help reduce the cost of producing materials based on colloidal solutions by 40-63%. Technology can be used in the chemical and medical industries.
Application of the developed technology allows receiving compounds of iron, aluminum and other metals from aqueous solutions by a plasmachemical method on a low-staple technology, which allows to reduce the duration of the process 2-3 times. This will reduce the cost of production based on the obtained compounds by 30,0-38,5%. The technology can be used in the fuel and paint industry.
Application of the mathematical model will allow controlling the component composition and physico-chemical characteristics of the compounds. This will reduce the quantity of products of low quality and cost of production of nanosized compounds in 1.5-2 times.
In 2014, four fundamental research projects were completed:
- “Principles of a new methodology for determining the functional action of nanocomponents in polymer compositions based on geometric phase morphology” (state registration number 0112U002063).
Head: Mykhailo Vasyliovych Burmistr, Academician of AS of Ukraine, Honored Worker of Science and Technology of Ukraine, Dr. of Chemistry, prof., head. of processing of plastics and photographic, nano and printing materials department.
Objective: is to develop synthesis methods, to study and optimize the properties of functional elemental organics and ionogenic macromolecular compounds and polymeric materials on their basis; creation of methods of regulation of physical-mechanical, elastic-hysteresis, adhesion and other operational properties of elastomeric materials with the use of substances of natural and synthetic origin; development of organo-inorganic nanostructured materials on the basis of thermoplastics and chain silicates and composites with a high complex of technological, physico-mechanical and thermophysical characteristics.
The first new synthesized titanium-containing alkoxy derivatives were synthesized for the first time, which was used to modify polymers and nanocomposite materials on their basis with a high complex of operational properties: polyurethane protective coatings, polyvinylchloride compositions for the manufacture of cable-conductor products, basalt-plasticizers, and also for hydrophobicization of cellulosic materials.
Methods of synthesis of new sulfoacid polymer matrices and nanocomposites characterized by static exchange capacity up to 3.6 mg-ekv / g and resistance to thermo-oxidation degradation (up to 180 ° C) were developed in this work. The filler introduced to increase the effective surface of the nanocomposite is distributed in the polymer matrix of the material exclusively in the form of nanosized inclusions in the size from 6 to 300 nm. It should be noted that in comparison with well-known foreign and domestic analogues (such as Amberlite IRA-120 / UK / and KU-2-8 and KSM-2 / Ukraine / with a static exchange capacity of 5.6 mg ek / g, 4.8 and 4.0 mg-eq / g, respectively), the developed cation exchangers are produced on an environmentally friendly and non-waste technology, and their catalytic activity in the esterification / re-esterification reactions significantly exceeds the known analogues.
Based on the study of the structure and complexity of elastomer properties, practically significant formulations of elastomeric composite materials for the production of tires, conveyor belts, molded rubber products and adhesive materials have been developed.
According to the results of the development of new composite based on modified polypropylene and modified aliphatic derivatives of polyamides of phenol-formaldehyde matrices with high strength properties and the development of bases of their reinforcement by discrete fibrous basaltic and composite (basalt, organic and carbon) reinforcing fillers, structural and antifriction polymer composite materials, properties which exceeds the properties of known composites. The intensity of mass wear of the developed composites is reduced by 3.6-12 times, and the coefficient of friction decreases by 1.5-2 times. Mechanical properties and thermophysical characteristics of polymer composite materials based on modified polypropylene are increased by 25-40%.